Model Based System Engineering
Innovation is happening more and more at the system level where different technologies converge.
Model Based System Engineering
Innovation is happening more and more at the system level where different technologies converge. For example the majority of differentiating functions in an automobile, such as adaptive cruise control, Lane assist, parking assistant involve several major subsystems like electronics, software, as well as dynamics and physics of the vehicle. Same as in case of any modern autonomous in Aerospace, defence, Marine, Heavy machinery etc. Implementing these functionalities requires a system level approach.
The system level approach is known by different names: systems engineering, model-based design, model-based systems engineering, systems-driven product development, 1D CAE and many others. Systems engineering traces its roots back to Bell Labs in the 1940s. Although the approach has been there for many years, it was largely confined to specialist departments, separate from the mainstream design and manufacturing groups. And even though the approach has value across many different industries it is only truly adopted in a few and just being considered in others.
However, with increasing use of software, electronics and controls in addition to the traditional mechanical components, all industries like Automotive, Aerospace and Defence, Heavy Equipment etc is increasingly looking at tools to manage systems engineering processes.
What is Model Based System Engineering / System simulation / 1D CAE ?
Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) or System simulation or 1D CAE is the methodology to create a digital twin of complex Multiphysics and multidisciplinary systems. The digital twin can be used to validate and optimise the behavior and performance of the system.
The systems are built by logically linking computational blocks referred as components which represents the characteristics of real world functional elements. These components encapsulate the physics or characteristics as computationally fast fundamental governing equations, empirical relationships and correlations or 1D finite element models
How accurate a 1D system simulation can be ?
Since 1D system components are based on fundamental governing equations and empirical relationships derived from experimental data, the systems assembled out of it can be a very accurate representation of the physical systems. The accuracy depends on how close the characters of the components are represented, whether it’s range of operation is within the range of these characteristics and how accurately the interaction between components across multiple disciplines and physics are modelled.
For standard mechanical components like springs, gears, cams etc.; hydraulic component like pipes, bends, junction, orifices etc. or heat transfer components like certain types of standard heat exchangers etc. can be very accurately represented by equations and correlations. But more specific components like pumps, compressors, special type of valves, electric motors, batteries, engines etc. need specific characteristics which should be derived by testing or detailed Finite Element Analyses.
3D Finite Element Analysis Vs 1D System Simulation
- 3D Finite Element Analysis (3D CAE) is mostly used to study or validate the behaviour in terms of one or more physics like strength, flow, heat transfer, electromagnetics, electrochemistry etc. related to a specific component. Whereas 1D System Simulation is used to study or validate a system consist of multiple components and how it interact and work together as a unit.
- For example it’s highly impractical to simulate a power plant or refrigeration cycle which consist of multiple components in a loop; a large firefighting system in a ship which spread across multiple decks or a landing gear system of an aircraft using 3D FEA.
- 1D system simulation can be used right from the very early stages of designing a system even when the CAD geometry or a detailed layout is not available to arrive at required component specifications. It allows the designers to investigate different concepts, evaluate and balance potentially conflicting performance attributes such as thermal management, operability, drivability or fuel efficiency. For example specification of the pump or turbine, specification of spring or ratio of gears required or the control logics.
- During the detailed design phase the system can be fine-tuned based on available data to make it more accurate to take informed design decisions.
- Once the physical system is available the 1D systems can be easily finetuned if necessary to have an exact digital twin on the physical system which can be later used for optimization studies; evaluate for changes in operating conditions or study the impact of any future modifications of the system.
- Since 1D system models run faster than real clock time it can be effectively used with Realtime hardware in loop requirements like an aircraft flight simulator.
Siemens Simcenter 1D Solutions
Siemens Digital Industries Software has the Unique blend of Industry leading solutions for 1D system simulation. The prime advantage of Siemens Simcenter 1D System Simulation is it’s seamless coupling with Simcenter 3D CAE Simulation and Simcenter Physical Testing solution which makes it more flexible and accurate. All Simcenter solutions is capable to leverage the power of design exploration and data analytics framework HEEDS whereas the data and process can be managed with unmatched capabilities of Teamcenter